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Cityscape paintings subject • artists • artworks for sale cityscape in fine art

The cityscape, a reflection of our built environment, developed into an independent genre in the Netherlands in the second half of the 17th century. It mainly developed in Amsterdam. This was probably related to the growth and prosperity of the city as the center of the powerful Republic of the Seven United Netherlands and the increasing prosperity of the merchants and city regents. They probably liked to see the city to which they owed their wealth hanging on their wall. Due to the broad demand for cityscapes, artists made it their specialty, such as Jan van der Heyden and Gerrit Adriaensz. Berckheyde. A prerequisite for success was a realistic and accurate depiction of the city. As far as can now be ascertained, these cityscapes were sometimes topographically correct, but usually the painters tinkered with a composition until an attractive whole was obtained.

In the 18th century, the genre's popularity declined somewhat, but in the 19th century it started to flourish again. One of the most important interpreters of the cityscape was the Amsterdam painter Cornelis Springer. From about 1875 onwards he painted city portraits in meticulous brushstrokes, with a town hall or rich merchant houses in the Dutch Renaissance style in the center of the image, bathed in bright sunlight. He found inspiration in the big cities and in the old fishing towns around the Zuiderzee. In doing so, he embellished reality somewhat through changes in the composition and the omission of disturbing, contemporary elements. Striking is the precise elaboration of architectural details such as frames, window divisions and ornaments, which are displayed down to the smallest parts. By depicting 16th and early 17th-century buildings, with their stepped gables and characteristic combination of red brick and sandstone moldings, he responded to the growing interest in buyers' circles for the own past of the Golden Age. The same realism and attention to old Dutch architecture is evident in the urban fantasies and portraits of Adrianus Eversen, Frederik Roosdorp, Jan Weissenbruch and Willem Koekkoek. In addition to topographically more or less accurate architectural paintings, there were also Old Dutch townscapes in which the emphasis seems to lie on the picturesque and the atmosphere. The work of the Hague set painter B.J. van Hove, twenty years older than Springer, is an example of this, as is that of his students P.G. Vertin and Charles Leickert. They provide their imaginary Dutch towns, in summer or winter, at will with the striking towers of the Oude Kerk in Delft, the Sint-Bavo and the Bakenesserkerk in Haarlem or the Grote Kerk in Alkmaar.

The idealized cityscape as described above came to an end later in the 19th century, when the painters of the Hague School proclaimed their theories about plein air painting. City chroniqueur Floris Arntzenius painted in The Hague and impressionists such as G.H. Breitner and Isaac Israels on the street in search of pieces of urban reality. In addition to the bustle of the city, Breitner also painted the alleys in the Jordaan and the silence of the Bickerseiland, near his studio. He also found typical parts of Rotterdam, which show us the city from a completely different side than the images of the never-resting port city that Johan Hendrik van Mastenbroek left us.

Typical of the painting of the Amsterdam painters born after 1860 is the need to express their own, individual in their art. Art is passion, the poet Willem Kloos expressed this point of view. This was expressed in a small group of painters in the need not to paint for trade or the public, but for themselves and like-minded people. Willem Witsen focused in his Amsterdam cityscapes from 1887 on depicting mood and the timeless beauty of the city. Like Breitner, Witsen was a photographer. He did not use his photos for his paintings, but it does explain his special way of looking. The Impressionists' cityscape influenced many painters in the 20th century, up to the present day. While some were influenced by new artistic movements such as Neo-Impressionism, Fauvism, Expressionism and Realism, these Impressionists continued on their chosen path. The complete artistic freedom that arose after 1945 eventually led to a new visual interpretation of the world of city and village.

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Felicien Bobeldijk | A view of the Westertoren, Amsterdam, watercolour on paper, 67.2 x 42.0 cm, signed l.r.

Felicien Bobeldijk

watercolour • drawing • for sale

A view of the Westertoren, Amsterdam

Adrianus Eversen | Snowy townscape with figures, oil on panel, 35.7 x 27.6 cm, signed l.l.

Adrianus Eversen

painting • for sale

Snowy townscape with figures

Jacob Maris | View of  town (Amsterdam), oil on canvas, 31.3 x 44.9 cm, signed l.r.

Jacob Maris

painting • for sale

View of town (Amsterdam)

Willem Koekkoek | View of the Koppelpoort in Amersfoort, oil on canvas, 86.5 x 125.5 cm, signed l.l.

Willem Koekkoek

painting • for sale

View of the Koppelpoort in Amersfoort

George Martens | Kattendiep, evening, oil on panel, 31.0 x 42.5 cm, signed on the reverse and painted ca. 1925

George Martens

painting • for sale

Kattendiep, evening, ca. 1925

Willem Koekkoek | View of a Dutch street with a bridge over a canal, oil on canvas, 67.4 x 82.3 cm, signed l.l. and dated '66

Willem Koekkoek

painting • for sale

View of a Dutch street with a bridge over a canal, 1866

Otto Eerelman | Horse-drawn sleigh in a town, oil on canvas, 60.3 x 90.3 cm, signed l.l.

Otto Eerelman

painting • for sale

Horse-drawn sleigh in a town

Willem Bastiaan Tholen | Market on the quay, oil on panel, 29.1 x 35.9 cm, signed l.l. and dated '83

Willem Bastiaan Tholen

painting • for sale

Market on the quay, 1883

Adrianus Eversen | Sunny Dutch street, oil on panel, 41.8 x 34.4 cm, signed l.l. in full and l.r. with monogram

Adrianus Eversen

painting • for sale

Sunny Dutch street

Willem Koekkoek | Winter street scene in Culemborg, oil on canvas, 86.5 x 125.3 cm, signed l.r.

Willem Koekkoek

painting • for sale

Winter street scene in Culemborg

Joop Kropff | The Elisabethhofje, Leiden, oil on canvas, 50.4 x 60.5 cm, signed l.r.

Joop Kropff

painting • for sale

The Elisabethhofje, Leiden

Frans Helfferrich | Window shopping at night, The Hague, oil on panel, 11.9 x 16.0 cm, signed l.l.

Frans Helfferrich

painting • for sale

Window shopping at night, The Hague

Adrianus Eversen | Behind the church, oil on panel, 34.8 x 27.0 cm, signed l.r.

Adrianus Eversen

painting • for sale

Behind the church

Karel Klinkenberg | Stadtkanal (Rotterdam), watercolour on paper, 24.5 x 17.4 cm, signed l.r.

Karel Klinkenberg

watercolour • drawing • for sale

Stadtkanal (Rotterdam)

Heinrich Hermanns | Flower market on a harbor quay, oil on canvas, 60.8 x 81.3 cm, signed l.r.

Heinrich Hermanns

painting • for sale

Flower market on a harbor quay

Frederik Roosdorp | Sunny street, oil on panel, 22.0 x 15.8 cm, signed l.l.

Frederik Roosdorp

painting • for sale

Sunny street

Hendrik Schaap | Market at the town hall of Middelburg, oil on painter's board, 40.7 x 30.8 cm, signed l.r.

Hendrik Schaap

painting • for sale

Market at the town hall of Middelburg

Petrus Gerardus Vertin | Snowy townscape with figures on a bridge, oil on panel, 35.0 x 27.1 cm, signed l.r. and dated '43

Petrus Gerardus Vertin

painting • for sale

Snowy townscape with figures on a bridge, 1843

Charles Leickert | Winter townscape with figures on the ice, oil on panel, 25.1 x 19.8 cm, signed l.r.

Charles Leickert

painting • for sale

Winter townscape with figures on the ice

Petrus Gerardus Vertin | Sunny city canal with drying laundry -  Zakkendragershuisje en het Achterwater te Delfshaven, Rotterdam, oil on panel, 19.0 x 15.0 cm, signed l.r.

Petrus Gerardus Vertin

painting • for sale

Sunny city canal with drying laundry - Zakkendragershuisje en het Achterwater te Delfshaven, Rotterdam

Willem Zijderveld | Townscape with canal and tower, oil on panel, 25.6 x 33.4 cm, signed l.l. (indistinctly)

Willem Zijderveld

painting • for sale

Townscape with canal and tower

Cornelis Vreedenburgh | A view of a city harbour, oil on canvas, 59.2 x 73.2 cm, signed l.l. and dated 1936

Cornelis Vreedenburgh

painting • for sale

A view of a city harbour, 1936

André Planson | On the boulevard, oil on canvas, 49.6 x 72.5 cm, signed l.r. and dated '46

André Planson

painting • for sale

On the boulevard, 1946

Charles Leickert | Market day in a Dutch town with left the Bank of Loan, oil on canvas, 59.5 x 49.6 cm, signed l.l.

Charles Leickert

painting • for sale

Market day in a Dutch town with left the Bank of Loan

Louis Apol | Dutch village canal in the snow, watercolour on paper laid down on board, 28.7 x 22.1 cm, signed l.l.

Louis Apol

watercolour • drawing • for sale

Dutch village canal in the snow

Arjen Galema | Place Pigalle in Paris by night, oil on panel, 15.8 x 22.0 cm, signed l.r. and painted ca. 1918-1925

Arjen Galema

painting • for sale

Place Pigalle in Paris by night, ca. 1918-1925

Evert Moll | The Seine and the Pont Alexandre III in Paris, oil on canvas, 50.4 x 60.6 cm, signed l.r and painted ca. 1925

Evert Moll

painting • for sale

The Seine and the Pont Alexandre III in Paris, ca. 1925

Karel Klinkenberg | The Spuistraat in The Hague on Queen's Day, watercolour and gouache on paper, 42.8 x 29.6 cm, signed l.r.

Karel Klinkenberg

watercolour • drawing • for sale

The Spuistraat in The Hague on Queen's Day


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