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Cityscape paintings subject • artists • artworks for sale cityscape in fine art

The cityscape, a reflection of our built environment, developed into an independent genre in the Netherlands in the second half of the 17th century. It mainly developed in Amsterdam. This was probably related to the growth and prosperity of the city as the center of the powerful Republic of the Seven United Netherlands and the increasing prosperity of the merchants and city regents. They probably liked to see the city to which they owed their wealth hanging on their wall. Due to the broad demand for cityscapes, artists made it their specialty, such as Jan van der Heyden and Gerrit Adriaensz. Berckheyde. A prerequisite for success was a realistic and accurate depiction of the city. As far as can now be ascertained, these cityscapes were sometimes topographically correct, but usually the painters tinkered with a composition until an attractive whole was obtained.

In the 18th century, the genre's popularity declined somewhat, but in the 19th century it started to flourish again. One of the most important interpreters of the cityscape was the Amsterdam painter Cornelis Springer. From about 1875 onwards he painted city portraits in meticulous brushstrokes, with a town hall or rich merchant houses in the Dutch Renaissance style in the center of the image, bathed in bright sunlight. He found inspiration in the big cities and in the old fishing towns around the Zuiderzee. In doing so, he embellished reality somewhat through changes in the composition and the omission of disturbing, contemporary elements. Striking is the precise elaboration of architectural details such as frames, window divisions and ornaments, which are displayed down to the smallest parts. By depicting 16th and early 17th-century buildings, with their stepped gables and characteristic combination of red brick and sandstone moldings, he responded to the growing interest in buyers' circles for the own past of the Golden Age. The same realism and attention to old Dutch architecture is evident in the urban fantasies and portraits of Adrianus Eversen, Frederik Roosdorp, Jan Weissenbruch and Willem Koekkoek. In addition to topographically more or less accurate architectural paintings, there were also Old Dutch townscapes in which the emphasis seems to lie on the picturesque and the atmosphere. The work of the Hague set painter B.J. van Hove, twenty years older than Springer, is an example of this, as is that of his students P.G. Vertin and Charles Leickert. They provide their imaginary Dutch towns, in summer or winter, at will with the striking towers of the Oude Kerk in Delft, the Sint-Bavo and the Bakenesserkerk in Haarlem or the Grote Kerk in Alkmaar.

The idealized cityscape as described above came to an end later in the 19th century, when the painters of the Hague School proclaimed their theories about plein air painting. City chroniqueur Floris Arntzenius painted in The Hague and impressionists such as G.H. Breitner and Isaac Israels on the street in search of pieces of urban reality. In addition to the bustle of the city, Breitner also painted the alleys in the Jordaan and the silence of the Bickerseiland, near his studio. He also found typical parts of Rotterdam, which show us the city from a completely different side than the images of the never-resting port city that Johan Hendrik van Mastenbroek left us.

Typical of the painting of the Amsterdam painters born after 1860 is the need to express their own, individual in their art. Art is passion, the poet Willem Kloos expressed this point of view. This was expressed in a small group of painters in the need not to paint for trade or the public, but for themselves and like-minded people. Willem Witsen focused in his Amsterdam cityscapes from 1887 on depicting mood and the timeless beauty of the city. Like Breitner, Witsen was a photographer. He did not use his photos for his paintings, but it does explain his special way of looking. The Impressionists' cityscape influenced many painters in the 20th century, up to the present day. While some were influenced by new artistic movements such as Neo-Impressionism, Fauvism, Expressionism and Realism, these Impressionists continued on their chosen path. The complete artistic freedom that arose after 1945 eventually led to a new visual interpretation of the world of city and village.

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Willem Bastiaan Tholen | Market on the quay, oil on panel, 29.1 x 35.9 cm, signed l.l. and dated '83

Willem Bastiaan Tholen

painting • for sale

Market on the quay, 1883

Joop Kropff | The Elisabethhofje, Leiden, oil on canvas, 50.4 x 60.5 cm, signed l.r.

Joop Kropff

painting • for sale

The Elisabethhofje, Leiden

Frans Helfferrich | Window shopping at night, The Hague, oil on panel, 11.9 x 16.0 cm, signed l.l.

Frans Helfferrich

painting • for sale

Window shopping at night, The Hague

Heinrich Hermanns | Flower market on a harbor quay, oil on canvas, 60.8 x 81.3 cm, signed l.r.

Heinrich Hermanns

painting • for sale

Flower market on a harbor quay

Hendrik Schaap | Market at the town hall of Middelburg, oil on painter's board, 40.7 x 30.8 cm, signed l.r.

Hendrik Schaap

painting • for sale

Market at the town hall of Middelburg

Charles Leickert | Winter townscape with figures on the ice, oil on panel, 25.1 x 19.8 cm, signed l.r.

Charles Leickert

painting • for sale

Winter townscape with figures on the ice

Petrus Gerardus Vertin | Sunny city canal with drying laundry -  Zakkendragershuisje en het Achterwater te Delfshaven, Rotterdam, oil on panel, 19.0 x 15.0 cm, signed l.r.

Petrus Gerardus Vertin

painting • for sale

Sunny city canal with drying laundry - Zakkendragershuisje en het Achterwater te Delfshaven, Rotterdam

Cornelis Vreedenburgh | A view of a city harbour, oil on canvas, 59.2 x 73.2 cm, signed l.l. and dated 1936

Cornelis Vreedenburgh

painting • for sale

A view of a city harbour, 1936

Jakob Nieweg | The artist's snowy garden, Amersfoort, oil on canvas, 40.5 x 50.5 cm, signed l.r. with initial and dated '29

Jakob Nieweg

painting • for sale

The artist's snowy garden, Amersfoort, 1929

André Planson | On the boulevard, oil on canvas, 49.6 x 72.5 cm, signed l.r. and dated '46

André Planson

painting • for sale

On the boulevard, 1946

Charles Leickert | Market day in a Dutch town with left the Bank of Loan, oil on canvas, 59.5 x 49.6 cm, signed l.l.

Charles Leickert

painting • for sale

Market day in a Dutch town with left the Bank of Loan

Anna Lehmann | A view of Deventer with the Grote Kerk, oil on canvas, 40.5 x 55.2 cm, signed l.l.

Anna Lehmann

painting • for sale

A view of Deventer with the Grote Kerk

Arjen Galema | Place Pigalle in Paris by night, oil on panel, 15.8 x 22.0 cm, signed l.r. and painted ca. 1918-1925

Arjen Galema

painting • for sale

Place Pigalle in Paris by night, ca. 1918-1925

Evert Moll | The Seine and the Pont Alexandre III in Paris, oil on canvas, 50.4 x 60.6 cm, signed l.r and painted ca. 1925

Evert Moll

painting • for sale

The Seine and the Pont Alexandre III in Paris, ca. 1925

Karel Klinkenberg | The Spuistraat in The Hague on Queen's Day, watercolour and gouache on paper, 42.8 x 29.6 cm, signed l.r.

Karel Klinkenberg

watercolour • drawing • for sale

The Spuistraat in The Hague on Queen's Day

Johan Hendrik van Mastenbroek | Harbour in Rotterdam, watercolour on paper, 34.4 x 41.3 cm, signed l.r. and dated '93

Johan Hendrik van Mastenbroek

watercolour • drawing • for sale

Harbour in Rotterdam, 1893

Arnoldus Antonius Christianus van 't Zant | View of a fortified town, oil on panel, 16.7 x 24.8 cm, signed l.r.

Arnoldus Antonius Christianus van 't Zant

painting • for sale

View of a fortified town

Hendrik Schaefels | Three-masters on the Scheldt near Antwerpen, oil on panel, 31.5 x 48.0 cm, signed l.l. and dated 1890

Hendrik Schaefels

painting • for sale

Three-masters on the Scheldt near Antwerpen, 1890

Andries Scheerboom | Vegetable market at the Waag in Amsterdam, oil on canvas, 76.3 x 127.4 cm, signed l.r.

Andries Scheerboom

painting • for sale

Vegetable market at the Waag in Amsterdam

Adolf Münzer | Saint Martin procession 1934, oil on canvas, 80.8 x 66.0 cm, signed on the reverse and dated on the reverse 1934

Adolf Münzer

painting • for sale

Saint Martin procession 1934, 1934

Adrianus Eversen | -, oil on panel, 31.0 x 24.0 cm, signed l.l.

Adrianus Eversen

painting • for sale

-, ca. 1852

Willem Koekkoek | Canal in Haarlem, oil on panel, 41.7 x 56.2 cm, signed l.r. and dated  on the reverse 1877

Willem Koekkoek

painting • for sale

Canal in Haarlem, 1877

Karel Klinkenberg | A view of the Oude Gracht in Utrecht, oil on panel, 22.1 x 27.0 cm, signed l.r.

Karel Klinkenberg

painting • for sale

A view of the Oude Gracht in Utrecht

Adrianus Eversen | Sunny village view, oil on panel, 27.0 x 20.0 cm, signed l.r. with monogram

Adrianus Eversen

painting • for sale

Sunny village view

Petrus Gerardus Vertin | A town view with the Dom tower of Utrecht, oil on canvas, 34.1 x 28.6 cm, signed l.l.

Petrus Gerardus Vertin

painting • for sale

A town view with the Dom tower of Utrecht

Petrus Gerardus Vertin | Village street in winter, oil on panel, 24.1 x 19.0 cm, signed l.r. and dated '67

Petrus Gerardus Vertin

painting • for sale

Village street in winter, 1967

Bart van Hove | A view of the Oude Kerk in Delft, oil on panel, 42.4 x 54.9 cm, signed l.l. and dated 1841

Bart van Hove

painting • for sale

A view of the Oude Kerk in Delft, 1841

Bart van Hove | Busy market place in a small Dutch town, oil on panel, 42.2 x 56.7 cm, signed l.r. and dated 1852

Bart van Hove

painting • for sale

Busy market place in a small Dutch town, 1852


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