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Johan Dijkstraartist • painter • watercolourist • draughtsman • printmakerGroningen 1896-1978

biography of Johannes 'Johan' Dijkstra

Johan Dijkstra, born in Groningen, follows the Higher Trade School after the three-year HBS and afternoon lessons at the Minerva Academy from 1915. There, like Jan Altink, he was taught by the non-conformist painter F.H. Bach, the teacher who took his students outside to paint the landscape on the spot. A favorite place was the Blauwborgje, a farmyard on the Reitdiep, where Dijkstra would return a lot later. After completing the MO drawing, he goes to Amsterdam for another year in 1919 to further focus on painting at the Rijksacademie. During his studies at Minerva in 1918, Dijkstra is one of the founders of the Groninger Kunstkring De Ploeg and takes part in the first Shift Exhibition in 1919. The press is full of praise. In this time Dijkstra maintains himself with making illustrations and advertising work, just like Altink. In 1922 he married Marie van Veen, a fellow student from Hefswal.

In his early years Dijkstra often goes out with Altink to paint. Both are attracted to the typical Groningen landscape and the hard-working farm workers. In 1921 he starts experimenting with color and technique. Initially he was inspired by the radiant colors and the paint touch with short brushstrokes by Vincent van Gogh. In this style he paints cityscapes and landscapes. With this he stood outside the expressionism of the other team members, who had already become acquainted with the art and views of Ernst Ludwig Kirchner through Jan Wiegers. Often the Ploegmakkers go out together and like to settle down at Blauwborgje. Or they drive to Oostum, to paint the church there. Was this because this church was so much more beautiful than other Groningen churches? The reason is not so prosaic; many Team Members painted places within cycling distance because they did not have a car. Dijkstra said of the churches in Groningen: 'It was as if they called to be painted.' He thought that in the Groningen countryside you could always see a church somewhere in the distance, built in red brick, made of the local Groningen clay and thus inextricably linked to the landscape.

It was not until around 1926, somewhat later than with the other team members, that a strong expressionism entered the work of Dijkstra. In his paintings this is reflected in a completely different use of color and brush: instead of small strips of oil paint he paints landscapes, cityscapes and portraits in large areas of wax paint in bright, almost swearing colors. His graphics show the same dynamics and expressiveness, especially in etchings and woodcuts.

Towards the late 1920s, we see an understated, Impressionist artist, albeit retaining his bold, bright colors. At that time Dijkstra also accepts many assignments for glass art and mosaic. He makes windows for the auditorium of the University of Groningen, designs gobelins for the first room in The Hague and makes murals for the city hall of Groningen. However, he remains free to draw and paint, more true to nature than before.

After the outbreak of the Second World War it becomes impossible to carry out monumental assignments and Dijkstra picks up brush and canvas again. He must register with the Kultuurkamer, but does not participate in official exhibitions. He retreats to the countryside where he mainly captures the Groningen landscape and makes many portraits of his friends. He continues to take an interest in the Groningen landscape with its vast wheat fields, churches and mounds. In a time of upscaling and land consolidation, he chooses to capture the simple farm life and a landscape that will be lost. He no longer cares about modern artistic movements. As a monumental artist, he remains popular even after the war and makes windows for the Geertekerk in Utrecht, among others.

Dijkstra started writing texts for publications by and about De Ploeg as early as the 1920s. From the 1930s he also writes as a critic for various newspapers, including the Provincial Groninger Courant, the Nie


for salepaintings, watercolours, drawings and prints & multiples by Johan Dijkstra


Dijkstra J.  | A view of Garnwerd at the river Reitdiep, oil on canvas, 70.8 x 94.3 cm, signed l.r.Dijkstra J.

A view of Garnwerd at the river Reitdiep, oil on canvas, 70.8 x 94.3 cm, signed l.r.

Dijkstra J.  | Drinking farm labourers, woodcut on paper, 50.0 x 37.0 cmDijkstra J.

Drinking farm labourers, woodcut on paper, 50.0 x 37.0 cm

Dijkstra J.  | Farm 'De Groene Wierde' near Eekwerd, oil on canvas, 50.5 x 82.5 cm, signed l.r. and painted ca. 1960Dijkstra J.

Farm 'De Groene Wierde' near Eekwerd, oil on canvas, 50.5 x 82.5 cm, signed l.r. and painted ca. 1960

Dijkstra J.  | Farmhouse en church of Leegkerk, oil on canvas, 60.4 x 100.1 cm, signed l.r.Dijkstra J.

Farmhouse en church of Leegkerk, oil on canvas, 60.4 x 100.1 cm, signed l.r.

Dijkstra J.  | Farmhouses in Orvelte, benzinerel and wax paint on canvas, 40.2 x 80.0 cm, signed l.l. and painted ca. 1930-1933Dijkstra J.

Farmhouses in Orvelte, benzinerel and wax paint on canvas, 40.2 x 80.0 cm, signed l.l. and painted ca. 1930-1933

Dijkstra J.  | Figure walking under the trees, oil on canvas, 100.0 x 70.0 cmDijkstra J.

Figure walking under the trees, oil on canvas, 100.0 x 70.0 cm

Dijkstra J.  | Flowers; on the reverse: Still life with pipe and tobacco, wax paint on canvas, 40.5 x 30.0 cm, signed l.r. and painted ca. 1930Dijkstra J.

Flowers; on the reverse: Still life with pipe and tobacco, wax paint on canvas, 40.5 x 30.0 cm, signed l.r. and painted ca. 1930

Dijkstra J.  | Garnwerd at sunset, oil on canvas, 60.0 x 100.5 cm, signed l.r.Dijkstra J.

Garnwerd at sunset, oil on canvas, 60.0 x 100.5 cm, signed l.r.

Dijkstra J.  | Giethoorn, watercolour on paper, 51.2 x 66.0 cm, signed l.r.Dijkstra J.

Giethoorn, watercolour on paper, 51.2 x 66.0 cm, signed l.r.

Dijkstra J.  | Landscape in Groningen on a windy day, wax paint on canvas, 55.0 x 80.1 cm, signed l.r. and painted ca. 1938Dijkstra J.

Landscape in Groningen on a windy day, wax paint on canvas, 55.0 x 80.1 cm, signed l.r. and painted ca. 1938

Dijkstra J.  | Landscape with birches, oil on canvas, 50.3 x 80.4 cm, gesigneerd verso met atelierstempelDijkstra J.

Landscape with birches, oil on canvas, 50.3 x 80.4 cm, gesigneerd verso met atelierstempel

Dijkstra J.  | Model in the artist's studio, watercolour on paper, 55.5 x 44.0 cmDijkstra J.

Model in the artist's studio, watercolour on paper, 55.5 x 44.0 cm

Dijkstra J.  | Standing nude, black chalk and watercolour on paper, 62.7 x 46.6 cmDijkstra J.

Standing nude, black chalk and watercolour on paper, 62.7 x 46.6 cm

Dijkstra J.  | Swiss landscape, oil on canvas, 70.0 x 100.0 cm, signed l.l.Dijkstra J.

Swiss landscape, oil on canvas, 70.0 x 100.0 cm, signed l.l.

Dijkstra J.  | The harvester, woodcut on paper, 75.5 x 52.0 cm, signed l.r. (in pencil) and printed ca. 1924Dijkstra J.

The harvester, woodcut on paper, 75.5 x 52.0 cm, signed l.r. (in pencil) and printed ca. 1924

Dijkstra J.  | The stern and helm of George's Martens tjalk 'Alida'; verso: Still life with a 'kraantjeskan' and knot of wool, oil on canvas, 36.0 x 40.2 cm, signed on the reverseDijkstra J.

The stern and helm of George's Martens tjalk 'Alida'; verso: Still life with a 'kraantjeskan' and knot of wool, oil on canvas, 36.0 x 40.2 cm, signed on the reverse

Dijkstra J.  | View on Eenrum with the Lutje Meulen, watercolour on paper, 40.3 x 67.2 cm, signed l.l.Dijkstra J.

View on Eenrum with the Lutje Meulen, watercolour on paper, 40.3 x 67.2 cm, signed l.l.


previously for salepaintings, watercolours, drawings and prints & multiples by Johan Dijkstra


Dijkstra J.  | Kruispunt, wax crayons on paper, 43.5 x 53.5 cm, gesigneerd r.o. atelierstempel and te dateren 1925-1930Dijkstra J.

Kruispunt, wax crayons on paper, 43.5 x 53.5 cm, gesigneerd r.o. atelierstempel and te dateren 1925-1930

Dijkstra J.  | Oranjesingel aan het Noorderplantsoen, Groningen, oil on canvas, 50.4 x 65.7 cm, gesigneerd l.o.Dijkstra J.

Oranjesingel aan het Noorderplantsoen, Groningen, oil on canvas, 50.4 x 65.7 cm, gesigneerd l.o.

Dijkstra J.  | A 'poffertjes' stall, chalk on paper, 20.0 x 31.0 cm, signed l.r. with studiostampDijkstra J.

A 'poffertjes' stall, chalk on paper, 20.0 x 31.0 cm, signed l.r. with studiostamp

Dijkstra J.  | A country road, pencil and watercolour on paper, 40.0 x 53.0 cmDijkstra J.

A country road, pencil and watercolour on paper, 40.0 x 53.0 cm

Dijkstra J.  | A country road, chalk and watercolour on paper, 49.0 x 67.5 cm, signed l.r. with studiostampDijkstra J.

A country road, chalk and watercolour on paper, 49.0 x 67.5 cm, signed l.r. with studiostamp

Dijkstra J.  | A country road by Beijum, oil on canvas, 28.0 x 37.5 cm, signed l.l. and painted between 1929-1931Dijkstra J.

A country road by Beijum, oil on canvas, 28.0 x 37.5 cm, signed l.l. and painted between 1929-1931

Dijkstra J.  | A farm, oil on canvas, 30.5 x 35.7 cm, signed l.r. and dated '17Dijkstra J.

A farm, oil on canvas, 30.5 x 35.7 cm, signed l.r. and dated '17

Dijkstra J.  | A farm, watercolour on paper, 38.7 x 49.3 cm, signed l.r.Dijkstra J.

A farm, watercolour on paper, 38.7 x 49.3 cm, signed l.r.

Dijkstra J.  | A farm on the waterfront, Giethoorn, oil on canvas, 46.5 x 46.3 cm, signed l.r. and painted ca. 1930Dijkstra J.

A farm on the waterfront, Giethoorn, oil on canvas, 46.5 x 46.3 cm, signed l.r. and painted ca. 1930

Dijkstra J.  | A landscape, Wierumerschouw, oil on canvas, 65.3 x 94.7 cm, signed l.l.Dijkstra J.

A landscape, Wierumerschouw, oil on canvas, 65.3 x 94.7 cm, signed l.l.

Dijkstra J.  | A red road, wax paint on board, 62.9 x 75.7 cm, painted between 1925-1927Dijkstra J.

A red road, wax paint on board, 62.9 x 75.7 cm, painted between 1925-1927

Dijkstra J.  | A spring meadow, pastel and watercolour on paper, 25.5 x 37.0 cm, signed l.r. (double)Dijkstra J.

A spring meadow, pastel and watercolour on paper, 25.5 x 37.0 cm, signed l.r. (double)

Dijkstra J.  | A summer landscape, oil and with petrol diluted oilpaint on canvas, 40.2 x 69.8 cm, signed l.r. and painted ca. 1930Dijkstra J.

A summer landscape, oil and with petrol diluted oilpaint on canvas, 40.2 x 69.8 cm, signed l.r. and painted ca. 1930

Dijkstra J.  | A sunlit orchard; on the reverse: Trees along a meadow, wax paint on canvas, 68.5 x 100.5 cm, signed l.r. and painted ca. 1925Dijkstra J.

A sunlit orchard; on the reverse: Trees along a meadow, wax paint on canvas, 68.5 x 100.5 cm, signed l.r. and painted ca. 1925

Dijkstra J.  | A sunlit street, oil on canvas, 60.6 x 80.5 cm, signed l.l.Dijkstra J.

A sunlit street, oil on canvas, 60.6 x 80.5 cm, signed l.l.

Dijkstra J.  | A view of Ezinge, watercolour on paper, 38.5 x 64.5 cm, signed l.r. with studiostampDijkstra J.

A view of Ezinge, watercolour on paper, 38.5 x 64.5 cm, signed l.r. with studiostamp

Dijkstra J.  | A view of Garnwerd, oil on canvas, 60.0 x 80.0 cmDijkstra J.

A view of Garnwerd, oil on canvas, 60.0 x 80.0 cm

Dijkstra J.  | A view of Garnwerd from snowy Reitdiep, chalk and watercolour on paper, 27.3 x 40.7 cm, signed l.r.Dijkstra J.

A view of Garnwerd from snowy Reitdiep, chalk and watercolour on paper, 27.3 x 40.7 cm, signed l.r.

Dijkstra J.  | A view of Huize Esserberg (now Sint Maartenscollege) in Haren (near Groningen), oil on canvas, 50.5 x 63.2 cm, signed l.l. and late twentiesDijkstra J.

A view of Huize Esserberg (now Sint Maartenscollege) in Haren (near Groningen), oil on canvas, 50.5 x 63.2 cm, signed l.l. and late twenties

Dijkstra J.  | A view of Niehove, oil on canvas, 50.2 x 70.5 cm, signed l.r.Dijkstra J.

A view of Niehove, oil on canvas, 50.2 x 70.5 cm, signed l.r.

Dijkstra J.  | A view of Niehove, oil on canvas, 50.2 x 70.5 cm, signed l.r.Dijkstra J.

A view of Niehove, oil on canvas, 50.2 x 70.5 cm, signed l.r.

Dijkstra J.  | A view of Oostum, oil on canvas, 60.5 x 80.0 cm, signed on the reserve and dated 1960Dijkstra J.

A view of Oostum, oil on canvas, 60.5 x 80.0 cm, signed on the reserve and dated 1960

Dijkstra J.  | A view of Oterdum, oil on canvas, 47.7 x 68.3 cm, signed l.r.Dijkstra J.

A view of Oterdum, oil on canvas, 47.7 x 68.3 cm, signed l.r.

Dijkstra J.  | A view of Woudrichem, watercolour and gouache on paper, 38.6 x 60.7 cm, signed l.l. with studio stampDijkstra J.

A view of Woudrichem, watercolour and gouache on paper, 38.6 x 60.7 cm, signed l.l. with studio stamp

Dijkstra J.  | A view of the 'Dellewal', Terschelling, wax paint on canvas, 81.0 x 101.0 cm, signed l.r. and painted circa 1933Dijkstra J.

A view of the 'Dellewal', Terschelling, wax paint on canvas, 81.0 x 101.0 cm, signed l.r. and painted circa 1933

Dijkstra J.  | A view of the 'Zwaaikom', Groningen, oil on canvas, 102.0 x 80.0 cm, signed on the reverse with studiostampDijkstra J.

A view of the 'Zwaaikom', Groningen, oil on canvas, 102.0 x 80.0 cm, signed on the reverse with studiostamp

Dijkstra J.  | A village, Groningen, chalk on paper, 29.0 x 48.2 cm, signed l.r.Dijkstra J.

A village, Groningen, chalk on paper, 29.0 x 48.2 cm, signed l.r.

Dijkstra J.  | At the Paterswolde lake, oil on canvas, 82.4 x 100.4 cm, signed with studio stamp 'Atelier Johan Dijkstra' rev.Dijkstra J.

At the Paterswolde lake, oil on canvas, 82.4 x 100.4 cm, signed with studio stamp 'Atelier Johan Dijkstra' rev.

Dijkstra J.  | Back gardens 'Burg. Seinenstraat', Aduard, oil on canvas, 56.1 x 68.3 cm, signed l.r. and painted between 1928-1929Dijkstra J.

Back gardens 'Burg. Seinenstraat', Aduard, oil on canvas, 56.1 x 68.3 cm, signed l.r. and painted between 1928-1929

Dijkstra J.  | Cattle in an extensive landscape, pastel and watercolour on paper, 24.7 x 32.5 cm, signed l.l. with studiostampDijkstra J.

Cattle in an extensive landscape, pastel and watercolour on paper, 24.7 x 32.5 cm, signed l.l. with studiostamp

Dijkstra J.  | Corn sheaves at the edge of the wood, oil on canvas, 50.3 x 70.0 cm, signed l.l. and painted ca. 1950Dijkstra J.

Corn sheaves at the edge of the wood, oil on canvas, 50.3 x 70.0 cm, signed l.l. and painted ca. 1950

Dijkstra J.  | Cornfield, Reitdiep, oil on canvas, 60.3 x 100.0 cm, signed c.l. and painted in 1946Dijkstra J.

Cornfield, Reitdiep, oil on canvas, 60.3 x 100.0 cm, signed c.l. and painted in 1946

Dijkstra J.  | Country road with trees, watercolour on paper, 30.7 x 22.3 cm, signed l.l. and 1930Dijkstra J.

Country road with trees, watercolour on paper, 30.7 x 22.3 cm, signed l.l. and 1930

Dijkstra J.  | Crossing, wax crayons on paper, 43.5 x 53.5 cm, signed l.r. with studiostamp and painted between 1925-1930Dijkstra J.

Crossing, wax crayons on paper, 43.5 x 53.5 cm, signed l.r. with studiostamp and painted between 1925-1930

Dijkstra J.  | Field of seed, Hefswal, oil on canvas, 61.0 x 100.3 cm, signed l.r.Dijkstra J.

Field of seed, Hefswal, oil on canvas, 61.0 x 100.3 cm, signed l.r.

Dijkstra J.  | Figures in a cornfield, coloured chalk on paper, 25.5 x 39.5 cm, signed originally with signature stamp l.r. (faded)Dijkstra J.

Figures in a cornfield, coloured chalk on paper, 25.5 x 39.5 cm, signed originally with signature stamp l.r. (faded)

Dijkstra J.  | Flowering trees 'Gardens in Helpman', oil on canvas, 50.1 x 70.3 cm, signed l.l. and painted circa 1938Dijkstra J.

Flowering trees 'Gardens in Helpman', oil on canvas, 50.1 x 70.3 cm, signed l.l. and painted circa 1938

Dijkstra J.  | Hay-cocks, oil on canvas, 60.1 x 80.2 cm, signed l.r.Dijkstra J.

Hay-cocks, oil on canvas, 60.1 x 80.2 cm, signed l.r.

Dijkstra J.  | Landscape, oil on canvas, 68.8 x 72.3 cmDijkstra J.

Landscape, oil on canvas, 68.8 x 72.3 cm

Dijkstra J.  | Landscape near Groningen, watercolour on paper, 55.5 x 76.0 cmDijkstra J.

Landscape near Groningen, watercolour on paper, 55.5 x 76.0 cm

Dijkstra J.  | Landscape near Ten Post, Groningen, watercolour on paper, 48.5 x 62.0 cm, signed l.l.Dijkstra J.

Landscape near Ten Post, Groningen, watercolour on paper, 48.5 x 62.0 cm, signed l.l.

Dijkstra J.  | Landscape of Groningen, oil on canvas, 50.7 x 70.6 cm, signed l.r.Dijkstra J.

Landscape of Groningen, oil on canvas, 50.7 x 70.6 cm, signed l.r.

Dijkstra J.  | Limekilns, Ten Boer, oil and with petrol diluted oilpaint on canvas, 52.2 x 65.4 cm, signed l.r. and painted in 1926Dijkstra J.

Limekilns, Ten Boer, oil and with petrol diluted oilpaint on canvas, 52.2 x 65.4 cm, signed l.r. and painted in 1926

Dijkstra J.  | Moored rowing boat, oil on canvas, 65.3 x 50.0 cm, signed l.r. and painted '24Dijkstra J.

Moored rowing boat, oil on canvas, 65.3 x 50.0 cm, signed l.r. and painted '24

Dijkstra J.  | Orange Singel at the Noorderplantsoen, Groningen, oil on canvas, 50.4 x 65.7 cm, signed l.l.Dijkstra J.

Orange Singel at the Noorderplantsoen, Groningen, oil on canvas, 50.4 x 65.7 cm, signed l.l.

Dijkstra J.  | Orchard in bloom, oil on canvas, 62.2 x 80.5 cm, signed l.l. and painted ca. 1930-1940Dijkstra J.

Orchard in bloom, oil on canvas, 62.2 x 80.5 cm, signed l.l. and painted ca. 1930-1940

Dijkstra J.  | Orvelte in winter, watercolour on paper, 31.5 x 49.5 cm, signed l.r.Dijkstra J.

Orvelte in winter, watercolour on paper, 31.5 x 49.5 cm, signed l.r.

Dijkstra J.  | Pasture, pastel and watercolour on paper, 25.5 x 37.0 cm, signed l.r. (twice)Dijkstra J.

Pasture, pastel and watercolour on paper, 25.5 x 37.0 cm, signed l.r. (twice)

Dijkstra J.  | Purple willows, gouache and oil on paper, 48.8 x 58.1 cmDijkstra J.

Purple willows, gouache and oil on paper, 48.8 x 58.1 cm

Dijkstra J.  | Sailing boats on a lake, oil on canvas, 50.2 x 60.2 cm, signed l.r.Dijkstra J.

Sailing boats on a lake, oil on canvas, 50.2 x 60.2 cm, signed l.r.

Dijkstra J.  | Sailing vessel moored to a quay, watercolour on paper, 57.7 x 48.5 cm, signed l.r. with studio stampDijkstra J.

Sailing vessel moored to a quay, watercolour on paper, 57.7 x 48.5 cm, signed l.r. with studio stamp

Dijkstra J.  | Sailing vessels moored to the quay of Schiermonnikoog, watercolour on paper, 24.5 x 35.8 cm, signed l.r. with studiostamp; signed on the reverse and painted ca. 1932Dijkstra J.

Sailing vessels moored to the quay of Schiermonnikoog, watercolour on paper, 24.5 x 35.8 cm, signed l.r. with studiostamp; signed on the reverse and painted ca. 1932

Dijkstra J.  | The 'Grote Markt', Groningen, pen and ink on paper, 20.0 x 29.7 cm, signed l.r. with studiostamoDijkstra J.

The 'Grote Markt', Groningen, pen and ink on paper, 20.0 x 29.7 cm, signed l.r. with studiostamo

Dijkstra J.  | The Blauwborgje on the Reitdiep, Groningen, oil on canvas, 60.2 x 80.0 cm, signed l.r.Dijkstra J.

The Blauwborgje on the Reitdiep, Groningen, oil on canvas, 60.2 x 80.0 cm, signed l.r.

Dijkstra J.  | The Paddepoel farm, oil on canvas, 50.4 x 64.4 cm, signed l.l. and dated '29Dijkstra J.

The Paddepoel farm, oil on canvas, 50.4 x 64.4 cm, signed l.l. and dated '29

Dijkstra J.  | The church of Hornhuizen, oil on canvas, 70.4 x 50.3 cmDijkstra J.

The church of Hornhuizen, oil on canvas, 70.4 x 50.3 cm

Dijkstra J.  | The church of Oostum, wax paint on canvas, 70.5 x 90.4 cm, painted circa 1938Dijkstra J.

The church of Oostum, wax paint on canvas, 70.5 x 90.4 cm, painted circa 1938

Dijkstra J.  | The church of Oostum, oil on canvas, 60.2 x 80.8 cm, signed l.l.Dijkstra J.

The church of Oostum, oil on canvas, 60.2 x 80.8 cm, signed l.l.

Dijkstra J.  | The main street in Thesinge, oil on canvas, 49.9 x 69.8 cm, signed l.l. and painted in 1954-1955Dijkstra J.

The main street in Thesinge, oil on canvas, 49.9 x 69.8 cm, signed l.l. and painted in 1954-1955

Dijkstra J.  | The moored 'Fenris', Reitdiep, oil on canvas, 50.0 x 75.9 cm, signed on the reverseDijkstra J.

The moored 'Fenris', Reitdiep, oil on canvas, 50.0 x 75.9 cm, signed on the reverse

Dijkstra J.  | Tree, oil on canvas, 64.4 x 49.9 cmDijkstra J.

Tree, oil on canvas, 64.4 x 49.9 cm

Dijkstra J.  | Two children by a haystack, oil on canvas, 50.5 x 65.3 cm, signed l.r. and dated '25Dijkstra J.

Two children by a haystack, oil on canvas, 50.5 x 65.3 cm, signed l.r. and dated '25

Dijkstra J.  | Wierumerschouw, oil on canvas, 66.3 x 95.2 cm, signed l.r. and painted ca. 1940Dijkstra J.

Wierumerschouw, oil on canvas, 66.3 x 95.2 cm, signed l.r. and painted ca. 1940


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